Significance of a Urinalysis, Test Results, and Revelation


Urinalysis is a simple test that offers significant information about various diseases and medical conditions. It is referred to a urine test that can be easily done in any clinical setting such as hospitals, clinics, outpatient laboratories, and emergency departments. It is also effective in evaluating the possibility of hyperglycemia (severe high blood sugar) by observing ketones in the urine.

Why Urinalysis

Urinalysis is an extremely useful test for diagnosing and screening for various medical conditions and body diseases such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, different types of kidney diseases, along with monitoring the progression of chronic diseases including hypertension and Diabetic Mellitus. Urinalysis is used as an indicative measure for the presence of blood, protein, and glucose.

The color and clarity of urine has major implications in disease detection and should always be taken seriously. The color of urine varies in concentration from deep yellow to almost clear. Odor in urine is not a definite sign but a need for a test cannot be negated. Urine odor occurs due to the urea-splitting organisms.

Doctors prescribe for urinalysis due to a number of reasons such as general routine screening to examine the condition of kidneys and susceptibility to diseases, assessing specific symptoms like flank pain, abdominal pain, painful urination, and more. For diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, carrying out urinalysis on a regular basis or as recommended by doctor assists in monitoring kidney related issues and response of the body to diabetes medicines.

About Urinalysis Procedure:

The procedure of urinalysis involves a collection of the urine sample in a specimen cup. It is usually advised to collect the sample in an integrated urine transfer device that makes it easy to transfer and test urine without the possibility of contamination. Morning sample is considered to be the best for urinalysis. It does not require any fasting before the procedure.

The urine sample collection technique for both men and women differ.  While sampling for men, the urethra area (tip of the penis) should be wiped clean before the urine collection can be done. It is advised to discard the initial stream of urine into the toilet and then begin collecting the sample. For women, the area around urethra should be wiped clean and the collection should begin after discarding the initial stream. Usually, 10-15 millimeters of urine collection is adequate for the testing procedure. This technique is called as the mid-stream clean catch sample collection.

The sample collected with such a technique should be analyzed within 1-2 hours of its collection and in cases where it may take longer time, the sample must be refrigerated.

Urinalysis Results

Normal urine has a typical observation in terms of color, quantity, clarity or cloudiness. Obvious abnormalities in this observation may be an indication of an infection, dehydration, hematuria, liver disease, and breaking down of muscle. Although certain medications may also be the reason for a change in color of urine and therefore, a macroscopic analysis of urine becomes important to ascertain the cause of change in normal urine. A urinalysis that shows the presence of protein in urine indicates kidney damage and calls for immediate medical assistance. Similarly, the presence of Ketones in the urine indicate a diabetic condition.

In the case of positive findings, other associated tests are also carried out as the only urinalysis in isolation, is not considered sufficient. The medical history of the patient and his clinical condition is taken into account before coming to a conclusion. Following the appropriate assessment, treatment is advised by doctors.

Urinalysis Revelation

Urinalysis aids in evaluating kidney function and the overall quality of urine produced. The process essentially evaluates the white blood cells (Pyuria), blood in the urine (Hematuria), crystals in the urine (Crystalluria), glucose, protein, ketones, and overall urine concentration.

A specific gravity (SG) ranging between 1.020 to 1.070 is measured during the urinalysis that defines the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine. For a normal patient, the presence of glucose, ketones, blood, and bilirubin traces will be negative. The presence of small amounts red and white blood cells in the result is considered normal.

In a few cases, additional tests like X-rays, cystogram, abdominal ultrasound, or exploratory surgery may also be required to accurately diagnose the condition.


Urinalysis is an extremely helpful way of ascertaining urinary abnormalities and other medical conditions in the body. Urinalysis can be done for both humans and animals. Almost every health or illness evaluation includes a urinalysis as it ascertains the function of significant body mechanisms such as kidneys and hydration. It is also a key factor in determining diabetes.

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